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什么是生物降解塑料袋?
发布于:2021/12/09 从生物降解过程看分为完全生物降解性和生物崩坏性塑料两大类;从制备方法考虑又可分为生物合成、化学合成、利用动植物高分子或矿物质等四种。
From the perspective of biodegradation process, it can be divided into two categories: fully biodegradable and biodegradable plastics; Considering the preparation methods, it can be divided into four kinds: biosynthesis, chemical synthesis and utilization of animal and plant polymers or minerals.
完全生物降解性塑料在化学方法合成时用利用脂肪族聚脂、聚乙烯醇(PVA)和聚乙二醇生产容易降解。利用这些高分子易生物降解的特性对生物降解塑料进行研究开发,其中以对脂肪族聚脂的研究优为突出。在纵多的脂肪族聚脂的中,聚己内脂(PCL)应用甚广,它是一种热塑性结晶型聚脂,可以被脂肪酶水解成小分子,然后,进一步被微生物同化。美国UCC公司已进行批量生产,并已经用于外科用品、黏结膜、脱膜剂等产品。PCL与PHB共混后,也可以制备生物降解塑料。脂肪族聚脂与尼龙进行胺脂的交换反应,合成聚酰脂共聚物(CPAE),CPAE则是新型的一种生物降解塑料。
Fully biodegradable plastics are easily degraded by using aliphatic polyester, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene glycol in chemical synthesis. The biodegradable plastics are researched and developed by using the biodegradable characteristics of these polymers, especially the aliphatic polyester. Among many aliphatic polyesters, polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used. It is a thermoplastic crystalline polyester, which can be hydrolyzed into small molecules by lipase, and then further assimilated by microorganisms. UCC company in the United States has carried out mass production and has been used in surgical supplies, conjunctiva, film remover and other products. Biodegradable plastics can also be prepared by blending PCL with PHB. Polyamide ester copolymer (Cpae) was synthesized by the exchange reaction of aliphatic polyester and nylon. Cpae is a new biodegradable plastic.
在用动植物的高分子合成时,植物的纤维素、淀粉等,动物中的壳聚糖、聚氨基葡萄糖、动物胶以及海洋生物的藻类等,可以制造有价值的生物降解塑料。
In the synthesis of high polymers from animals and plants, valuable biodegradable plastics can be made from cellulose and starch of plants, chitosan, polyglucosamine, animal glue and algae of marine organisms.
也可以利用化学方法与高分子共混技术来合成可降解塑料,主要品种有PHB/PCL,糊化淀粉/PCL等制品。它们的主要特点是可完全降解,同时通过共混提高其耐热性、耐水性以及降低成本,使其成为通用的降解性塑料。
Degradable plastics can also be synthesized by chemical method and polymer blending technology. The main varieties include PHB / PCL, gelatinized starch / PCL and other products. Their main feature is that they can be completely degraded. At the same time, through blending, their heat resistance, water resistance and cost are improved, so that they become general degradable plastics.
生物崩坏性塑料是属于不完全生物降解塑料,是在烯烃通用塑料中混入生物降解性物质,使材料丧失力学性能与形状,而通过堆肥化产生与生物降解性能同样的效果,因这类塑料成本低,国内外已经采用这种方法。
Biodegradable plastics are incompletely biodegradable plastics. Biodegradable substances are mixed into olefin general plastics to make the materials lose their mechanical properties and shape, and produce the same effect as biodegradability through composting. This method has been adopted at home and abroad because of the low cost of this kind of plastics.
生物降解塑料袋
Biodegradable plastic bag
脂肪族聚脂类生物崩坏塑料是通用塑料很纤细的纤维状均匀的分散到具有生物降解性的聚脂而能使共聚物具有生物降解性。将脂肪族通用塑料如PE、PP、PS、PVC等共混,控制其相结构和分散状态,制得物理性能的生物降解塑料;而矿物质生物崩坏塑料与碳酸钙填充改性聚烯烃塑料相似,为了适应环境的需要,研究开发了高填充碳酸钙母料以及专用料,以此制成薄膜、片材、盒等包装材料。吉林研究所研究了PE/碳酸钙类地降解材料。这类材料具有塑料用量低、能耗低、成本低等优点,然而密度大、气密性小、降解诱导期不宜控制以及力学性能较差的缺点,因此只能作为一次性使用的包装材料,其降解性还有待进一步研究。
Aliphatic polyester biodegradable plastics are general-purpose plastics. They are very fine fibrous and evenly dispersed into biodegradable polyester, which can make the copolymer biodegradable. Biodegradable plastics with physical properties were prepared by blending aliphatic general plastics such as PE, PP, PS and PVC to control their phase structure and dispersion state; Mineral biological disintegrating plastics are similar to calcium carbonate filled modified polyolefin plastics. In order to meet the needs of the environment, high filled calcium carbonate masterbatch and special materials have been developed to make films, sheets, boxes and other packaging materials. The PE / calcium carbonate degradation material was studied by Jilin Research Institute. These materials have the advantages of low plastic consumption, low energy consumption and low cost. However, they have the disadvantages of high density, small air tightness, uncontrolled degradation induction period and poor mechanical properties. Therefore, they can only be used as disposable packaging materials, and their degradation needs to be further studied.
生物降解型塑料的发展方向是
What is the development direction of biodegradable plastics
A、利用纤维素、淀粉、甲壳质等高分子材料制取生物降解塑料,进一步开发改良高分子的功能与技术。
A. Biodegradable plastics are prepared from polymer materials such as cellulose, starch and chitin, and the functions and technologies of improved polymers are further developed.
B、利用高分子设计、精细合成技术合成生物降解塑料。通过对具有生物降解性的合成高分子生物降解机理的解析,制取生物降解塑料;同时对这类高分子与现有通用聚合物、高分子、微生物类聚合物等的镶段共聚进行研究开发;
B. Biodegradable plastics were synthesized by polymer design and fine synthesis technology. Biodegradable plastics were prepared by analyzing the biodegradation mechanism of synthetic polymers with biodegradability; At the same time, the block copolymerization of these polymers with existing general polymers, polymers and microbial polymers was studied and developed;
C、提高生物降解塑料的生物降解性能和降低其成本,并扩宽应用。
C. Improve the biodegradability of biodegradable plastics, reduce its cost, and expand its application.
D、降解速度的控制研究。总之,随着社会的需要,生物降解塑料会越来越受到重视,成为今后一个时期的重大研究课题。
D. Study on the control of degradation rate. In short, with the needs of society, biodegradable plastics will be paid more and more attention and become a major research topic in the future.
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The wonderful contents of this article are provided by Jinan plastic bag. There are many wonderful contents on this website. You can click to enter more contents: http://www.sxsuliao.com We have special customer service to answer your questions
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